|Established in 1909 as Mukuntuweap National Monument and expanded in 1919 to Zion National Park. The park is composed mostly of sandstone stained by the oxidizing of iron in the rock. Zion National Park with its many canyons contains 75 species of mammals, 271 birds, 32 reptiles and amphibians and 8 fish in the streams and rivers, which have carved these canyons.
Protected within Zion National Park is a spectacular cliff-and-canyon landscape and wilderness full of the unexpected including Kolob Arch – the world’s largest arch – with a span that measures 310 feet. Zion National Park is full of beautiful colors, scenery and wildlife. Wildlife such as mule deer, golden eagles, and mountain lions, also inhabit the Park. The sandstone which makes up most of the rock in Zion National Park was formed by the compacting of sand about 150 million years ago. This occurred when cementing properties of compounds such as calcium carbonate compacted the sand which covered the huge desert of the west.
Dunes were at that timed formed into the present day Navajo Sandstone. The next stage of creation occurred starting close to 4 million years ago when streams running of the Colorado Plateau caused the Virgin River to flood. As the river flowed through current area of Zion National Park, it eroded the rock away taking boulders, sand, and pebbles with it. Over time it formed, or rather carved the canyons of Zion National Park that we see today.